In this article, we build on four methods to show that Art. 2.1(c) of the Paris Agreement comprises a new meaning of ‘finance’ under the United Nations negotiations. Implementation of Art. 2.1(c) requires engagement by governments and non-state actors, including the financial sector.
This paper investigate in particular how child labor varies depending on the nature of electricity supply and the electrical appliances used in the household. We find that the employment probability of children from electrified households is lower than that of children living in non-electrified households only when the household combines grid access and a generator as sources of electricity.
This paper investigates the design of a recent regulatory proposal aimed at favoring the emergence of a
battery recycling industry in Europe. It develops a material flow model that projects battery wastes and their recycling potential. Our findings indicate that the feasibility of the European Commission proposed thresholds is not very sensitive to changes of material intensities from battery technology shifts, recycling efficiencies, or the faster uptake of demand.