The article examines the relationship between a household’s income and its carbon emissions (the carbon footprint). It is found that, generally, the carbon footprint grows less rapidly than expenditure, and confirms that the income elasticity is lower than the expenditure elasticity
We examine the interactions between growth in CO2 emissions, economic production, and energy use at the global and multi-regional levels over the period 1990–2014. Among our findings, our results suggest that policy effectiveness could be gained if a country’s climate actions were coordinated with the other geographies most affected by their consequences, providing valuable information on the implementation of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement.
This paper follows Harvie and Grasselli and Maheshwari’s research program in testing both Goodwin’s predator–prey model and the extension proposed by van der Ploeg. The aim of this paper is to provide a guideline for the bloc estimation and the backtesting strategy that can be applied to such a class of continuous-time non-linear macroeconomic models.