Many studies have investigated the carbon footprint of households. Here we open a new field by discussing the emissions that individuals enable by providing labor and capital to companies, using the framework of income-based (downstream) responsibility. Our results show that inequalities in emissions do not strongly interact with economic inequality. Yet they are gendered because women work disproportionately in low-carbon intensive industries such as healthcare. As a result, women contribute less to GHG emissions than their wage share would seem to indicate.
Sectors that are considered to be subject to international competition under the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) still benefit from free allocation of European Allowances (EUAs). Herein we study one of those beneficiaries: the crude steel industry. Our findings suggest the EU-ETS has failed to provide incentives for decarbonization in this sector.
We address the long-standing challenge of adding optimal exploration to the classic Hotelling model of a non-renewable resource. We prove that a frontier of critical levels of proven reserves exists, above which exploration ceases, and below which it proceeds at infinite speed.
This article identifies supply and demand shocks in the oil and gas market using monthly data (from January 2008 to December 2021) and explores their impact on clean energy stock returns in Europe. Our results show that a negative gas supply shock positively affects clean energy stocks, while a negative shock in global oil supply does not have a significant effect on clean energy stocks throughout the period studied.
In this study, we analyse how access to electricity affects children’s well-being in Rwanda through the allocation of their time in the different activities of domestic production and their leisure time.