Crowdfunding is a new form of financial intermediation able to meet the financial needs of renewable energy projects. Yet, there is a scarcity of research on the significance and evolution of renewable energy crowdfunding. This paper tries to fill this gap by providing a bibliometric analysis of academic work on renewable energy crowdfunding. We identify three main clusters of publications focused on (1) the renewable energy crowdfunding as an innovative solution to overcome technological and financial barriers in the deployment of renewable energy (2) the financial and institutional options relative to the implementation of renewable energy technologies, (3) the links among private actors in the energy transition. Based on this result, we show that public intervention has been overlooked in the literature on renewable energy crowdfunding and we suggest that the state supports the crowdfunding to promote the development of renewable energy projects. Finally, we discuss its intervention as a regulator and as an investor.
This paper analyses the drivers of French transport CO2 emissions over the period 1960-2017. A decomposition analysis is used to evaluate the relative contribution of five key drivers of passenger and freight transports emissions: transport demand, modal shift, vehicle load factor, energy efficiency and carbon intensity of the energy.
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