In this article, I first look at the most recent data to define when the Little and Great Divergence occurred. Next, I sort the deep determinants governing economic development into three categories (biogeography, culture-institutions, and contingency-conjuncture), and I provide a comprehensive review of these determinants in the context of the Great Divergence. The article then discusses the concepts of persistence and reversal of fortune, and finally claims that there is a clear pattern of change over time of the relative importance of the three categories of determinants. Hence, I conclude that in addition to studies examining the long-lasting effect of deep determinants of economic development in the context of a historical event, research should focus on elaborating a unified framework that can account for the relationships between determinants. I further argue that this synthetic explanation of the Great Divergence should focus on family and energy systems as ultimate determinants.
This paper analyses the drivers of French transport CO2 emissions over the period 1960-2017. A decomposition analysis is used to evaluate the relative contribution of five key drivers of passenger and freight transports emissions: transport demand, modal shift, vehicle load factor, energy efficiency and carbon intensity of the energy.
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