Pioneer investigations of the economic consequences of ethnic diversity – a ubiquitous feature of African societies – found a strong and negative correlation. The present paper revisits this “diversity burden” conjecture, by using (1) newly available, better-quality data-sets allowing for sub-national estimations and multiple robustness checks, and (2) a new instrument, a pre-colonial measure of ethnic diversity, to explore causality. We find that the impact of ethnic diversity depends on the public good and the specification considered. Overall, completely heterogeneous societies produce 3 percent less public goods than their homogeneous counterparts, a negative but more limited effect than previously found.
This paper analyses the drivers of French transport CO2 emissions over the period 1960-2017. A decomposition analysis is used to evaluate the relative contribution of five key drivers of passenger and freight transports emissions: transport demand, modal shift, vehicle load factor, energy efficiency and carbon intensity of the energy.
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